Loie Fuller was a pioneer of modern dance and of theatrical lightning effects. She developed and introduced the dance in 1891, combining her choreography with silk costumes illuminated by multi-colored lighting of her own design. In several of the Serpentine Dance movies her special colored lighting effects have been translated into fascinating hand-colored effects. Besides Serpentine Dance performances (often referred to as Butterfly Dances); Fuller presented a Fire Dance into which the four elements were incorporated.
The Serpentine Dance films: Skladanowsky Brothers (1895), Dickson for Edison Manifacturing Company (1895, 1896 & 1897), Lumiere Brothers (1896), Demeny (1897), Alice Guy (1899,1900 &1902), Melies (1899), G.A. Smith (1902) & De Chomon (1908).